In a parliamentary system, as with Britain, Italy, Germany, India, and Japan, the executive is known as the cabinet, and composed of members of the legislature. The executive is led by the head of government, whose office holds power under the confidence of the legislature. Because popular elections appoint political parties to govern, the leader of a party can change in between elections. In the ‘lower house’ politicians are elected to represent smaller constituencies. The ‘upper house’ is usually elected to represent states in a federal system or different voting configuration in a unitary system .
- Lecturer Adam Klein explains how foreign intelligence services will continue to gather sensitive personal information even if lawmakers limit the access hostile foreign powers have to American personal data.
- While laws are positive “is” statements (e.g. the fine for reversing on a highway is €500); law tells us what we “should” do.
- Strict duties