Forensic investigation is a practice of lawfully establishing evidence and facts that are to be presented in a court of law. The word forensic is derived from the Latin word forensis and means “of or before the forum.” In modern times, the term is used for nearly all investigations, ranging from computer crimes to murders. When most people think about a forensic investigation, they think about crime scene investigation, but there are other forms of forensic investigation. There are numerals types of forensic investigation which are very part of crime investigation either in felonies or misdemeanour. Some kind of pioneering forensic investigations are mentioned below:
Cyber crime investigation: Internet Auctions, Online Gambling, Online Rental Ads, Peer-to-Peer Networks, Social Networking, Wi-Fi Connections, Work-at-Home Offer
Forensic Anthropology: Bone Analysis??????- The application of anthropological knowledge and techniques in a legal context. This involves detailed knowledge of osteology (skeletal anatomy and biology) to aid in the identification and cause of death of skeletal remains, as well as the recovery of remains using archaeological techniques.
Chromatography: Chromatography involves a sample (or sample extract) being dissolved in a mobile phase (which may be a gas, a liquid or a supercritical fluid). The mobile phase is then forced through an immobile, immiscible stationary phase. The phases are chosen such that components of the sample have differing solubilities in each phase. A component which is quite soluble in the stationary phase will take longer to travel through it than a component which is not very soluble in the stationary phase but very soluble in the mobile phase. As a result of these differences in mobilities, sample components will become separated from each other as they travel through the stationary phase.
DNA Profiling: It helps in disputed paternity, child swapping either accidentally or deliberately, property hereditary cases, immigration disputes, etc.Fingerprinting: Fingerprints recognition is a very important part of resolving cases. Sometimes only with the help of fingerprint analysis, the controversial cases which includes fingerprints, palm prints or thumb impressions.
Physical Evidence: Fibre, Stain, and Hair AnalysisHandwriting Analysis: involved in producing a personality profile of the writer by examining the characteristics, traits and strokes of an individual’s handwriting.
Psychological Evaluation Division: this division is a new evolution in forensic investigation . it reads the human psychology with the help of polygraph which include LIE DETECTION, NARCO ANAYSIS, BRAIN MAPPING.
Counterfeiting investigation unit: it helps to know about the authenticity of forged stamp papers, cheques, drafts, marks lists , counterfeit currency, share certificates, handwriting/signature forgeries and document manipulations (erased, obliterated) , sale deeds, labels and any other document problems, civil or criminal in nature.
Audio & Video Authentication Division: Identification of the speaker from the audio devices and authentication of images from the videos and photographs.Forensic investigation is a evolution for the solutions of most of the criminal cases now which is very much effective in hardcore cases also. Forensic Science is making the prosecution of the perpetrators of crime easier by making the evidence collected at crime scenes irrefutable.